Ethics is the study and evaluation of human conduct with respect to standards of behavior which can be either individual or social. The basic idea that there is a right and wrong way to do things has existed probably as long as mankind. Ethics were formulated, discussed, and argued in the early Greek period, and have been the subject of refinement and controversy ever since. Because of cultural biases, there is no universal standard of ethics adhered to by everyone. According to transpersonal psychology, the development and integration of morals and ethics is the first important stage of the individuation process and absolutely necessary for self-actualization.
ACA. American Counseling Association.
Ethics. In philosophy, ethics is the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. This can be viewed as either an individual standard of conduct or as a body of social obligations and duties. (Microsoft Bookshelf, 1995).
According to Brody (1983), "ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with the moral dimensions of human life" (p. 4). The "moral dimensions of human life" make the following three assumptions:
1. There is a difference between actions which are right, and actions which are wrong.
2. We have the ability to know, most of the time, which actions are right, and which are wrong.
3. This knowledge of which actions are right, and which are wrong, can have an impact of our behavior. For this reason, we do things that we know to be right, and avoid doing things that we know to be wrong.
Philosophical ethics is often called normative ethics and distinguished from descriptive ethics. Descriptive ethics is a department of empirical science, related to sociology, that seeks to discover and describe what moral beliefs are held in a given culture. Normative ethics seeks rather to prescribe; it searches for norms, not in the sense of what is average and in that sense normal, but in the sense of authoritative standards of what ought to be (Grolier, 1993).
Morality. "Morality is a system of beliefs, values, and underlying judgments about the rightness or wrongness of acts" (Zimbardo, 1988, p. 87).
Situation Ethics. Situation ethics claims that the morality of an action depends on the situation and not on the application of a law to the case. It can be traced back to Aristotle, who held that the decision in a particular case "rests with perception" (Grolier, 1993).
Brief History of Ethics.
One of the first known codes of ethics was developed by Pythagoras during the 6th century BC. He taught that our intellectual nature is superior to our sensual nature, and that we should dedicate our lives to mental discipline (Microsoft Encarta, 1996).
In the 5th century BC, Greek philosophers called Sophists taught logic and civil affairs but were skeptical of moral absolutes. Socrates opposed the Sophists. His pupil, Plato, summarized his essential teaching in the phrase 'virtue is knowledge.' He taught that if people knew what virtue is, they will tend to be ethical. He believed that evil is the result of ignorance and that the way to ethical behavior was through education (Encarta, 1996).
During this time, three other major Greek schools flourished: (1) The Cynics taught that the only real virtue is self-control and they considered pleasure to be evil. (2) The Cyrenaics were hedonists, and taught that pleasure was the chief good. (3) The Megarians, who followed Euclid, taught that there is only one "good" which is God, the ultimate mystery of the universe which could be revealed through logical inquiry (Encarta, 1996).
During the 4th century, Plato's pupil Aristotle wrote his principle work on ethics, the Nicromanchean Ethics. In this work, Aristotle defines happiness as any behavior that accords with the specific nature of humanity. Morals and ethical behaviors were considered to lead to the highest human activity, contemplation, through what he called the golden mean. This is the principle of moderation, and is similar to the Middle Path of Mahayana Buddhism. Aristotle defined the mean as lying between the two extremes of excess and insufficiency, and thus he taught that moral behavior is somewhat conditional (Encarta, 1996).
About 300 BC Stoicism developed and influenced Rome and the famous Roman emperor and philosopher Marcus Aurelius. The Stoics taught that only a life led in harmony with nature could be considered good. They emphasized courage, justice, and determination (Encarta, 1996).
Christianity introduced the ideas of religious good and demonic evil. They taught that goodness came only from God's grace, and thus only a pious religious life can lead to good. The central ethical teachings of Christianity are summed in the word's of Jesus, who said "So whatever you wish that men would do to you, do so to them" (Matthew, 7:12), and "you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your strength, and with all your mind, and your neighbor as yourself" (Luke 10:27). As the medieval church grew in power, a juridical system of ethics developed in which we would obtain reward for good behavior or punishment for bad behavior in a life after death.
Christian ethics underwent some changes during the Renaissance, in the reformation period when Protestants encouraged a return to the basic ethical principles outlined by Jesus. Martin Luther, for example, taught that ethical and moral behavior are required, while salvation comes only through faith. When Luther married, celibacy ceased to be required of clergymen. The Puritans, who followed John Calvin (who himself followed Augustine), believed in original sin, and emphasized sobriety, diligence, and thrift. They believed that prosperity was a sure sign that they were on the right track, and the idea developed that wealth was a sign of goodness while poverty was a sign of evil (Encarta, 1996).
More modern philosophers who have influenced our sense of ethics and morals include Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Baruch Spinoza, David Hume, Adam Smith, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Immanual Kant, John Stuart Mill, G. W. F. Hegel, and Soren Kierkegaard, to name a few.
Psychology has also influenced how modern society views ethics, especially the works of Sigmund Freud who indicated that our views of good and evil are mixed with guilt and shame. Behavorism, influenced by the works of Watson and Skinner, has suggested that our behaviors are largely our responses to environmental stimuli, and can be changed as we adapt and adjust to our environment (Encarta, 1996).
Problems with Ethics.
Forcing ethical behavior on professionals, called applied ethics, has seen difficulties. Bayles (1987) says "For many observers applied ethics as it has emerged in the last decade or so has not lived up to its original promise" (p. 1). Some outsiders, for example, have questioned the need for ethics, while others have questioned if having a code of ethics will do any real good. A major criticism from with applicable fields is that much of applied ethics has been "too abstract, rigid, and divorced from the concrete problems faced by practitioners in fields considered by applied ethics" (p. 1). He makes a strong case that "If ethical reasoning is to influence others, it must be communicated to them in a form they can understand" (p. 21).
Ethics and Education.
There are several important ethical considerations in the field of education. One is compensatory education where preschool is used to offset the effects of social disadvantage. Intelligence is not pre-determined or unchangeable, and it can be motivated (Craig, 1989). But labeling any particular group as socially or culturally disadvantaged can easily lead to racism or class snobbery. In 1986, the National Associaiton for the Education of Young Children (Craig, 1989) presented the following ethical guidelines for teachers of young children:
• In place of an "academic" program, an educational curriculum should include all areas of a child's development.
• Curriculum plans should be based on observations of individuals, not groups.
• Learning environments should encourage exploration and interaction with adults, other children, and learning materials.
• Children should be provided with concrete and relevant activities and materials.
• Adults should respond quickly and directly to children's needs.
Another important ethical concern in education today is the so-called hidden curriculum which "prepare children to accept the requirements of adult life and to "fit into" the social, political, and economic statuses the society provides." (Tischler, 1993, p. 297). Children today must not only pass the academic curriculum, but also the hidden curriculum.
Some theorists have called ours the "credentialized society" because a degree or certificate is necessary to perform a vast number of jobs even though the credentials may not assure better performance (Tischler, 1993).
Colleges and universities are miniature socities more than centers of technical and scientific education. In these environments students learn how to operate within the established order and to accept traditional social hierarchies" (Tischler, 1993, p. 299).
The ethics of our modern educational facilities are thus questionable.
Ethics and Research.
Because of problems stemming from using people in various studies without their knowledge or permission, it is no longer legal or ethical to do so. In 1974, the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare strengthened existing regulations to prohibit experimentation of any kind on human subjects without their informed consent (Hunt, 1993). However, in 1981 these restrictions were eased to allow minor deception or withholding of information provided there was minimum risk to the participants and the research could not possibly be carried out otherwise.
Risk-benefit analyses have been developed to determine eligibility for federal research grants.
The late Sir Cyril Richard (1883-1971) was a distinguished psychologist in England whose research studies concluded that intelligence, measured with the standard IQ testing, was genetic. His research was later found to be fraudulent and the whole idea of genetic intelligence is now questionable (Darely, Glucksberg, and Kinchla, 1991).
Ethics and Law.
Legal ethics consist of the principles of conduct that lawyers and judges are expected to follow in their professional activities. The basis of legal ethics in the Western legal tradition is that every person has the right to legal representation, regardless of his or her financial condition. Lawyers and judges are expected to avoid conflicting interests: when the outcome of a case is contrary to the interests of a client, for example, the client's lawyer must not stand to profit from that outcome; judges may not be personally involved in the disputes over which they preside. In helping their clients, lawyers must stay within the law. They may not knowingly aid their clients in breaking the law or engage in practices of dubious legality (Grolier, 1993).
According to Silber (1995), the effectiveness of the law of any country is directly proportional to the morality of its citizens. He warns that America today is a flawed society, chiefly because of the current lack of ethical standards of its citizens and he uses the O. J. Simpson trial as an example of how our criminal justice system has become a "soap opera."
In general, laws are mandatory and carry penalties (usually fines or imprisonment) if broken, whereas ethical codes are goals and their infraction results only in unpopularity (or after-death punishment in the case of religious moral codes). However, many professional ethical codes of behavior have recently been established that often carry the penalty of losing a licence or certificate to practice.
The Psychology of Morality.
Morality has to do with a sense of right and wrong, and with what psychologists call the conscience. Piaget (1960), a famous cognitive psychologist, defined morality as "an individual's respect for the rules of social order and his sense of justice," where justice is "a concern for reciprocity and equality among individuals." According to Piaget (1960), moral sense develops in two stages as follows: (1) The moral realism stage is where all rules are obeyed without distinction. There is no weight given in this first stage to intent. (2) The moral relativism stage is where rules are created and agreed to cooperatively by individuals. In this second stage, rules can change - there is no absolute right or wrong.
The entire concept of moral development must concern itself with child development and how morality is acquired during the developing stages of life.
There is considerable debate as to how children acquire morality. Social learning theorists believe that children learn it by being rewarded or punished for various kinds of behavior and by modeling. Psychodynamic psychologists believe it develops as a defense against anxiety over the loss of love and approval. Cognitive theorists believe that, like intellectual development, morality develops in progressive, age-related stages. (Craig, 1989, p. 352)
There are three main schools of thought concerning moral development in modern psychology: social learning, psychodynamic, and cognitive. Social learning theorists are concerned with behaviors and suggest that moral development is primarily a matter of reward and punishment. Children model the behavior of adults, and learn morals through rewards and punishments, a well-documented process called operant conditioning.
Psychodynamic theorists are concerned with emotions and suggest that moral development comes about by unconsciously avoiding the disapproval of others. Freud was a psychodynamic theorist:
Freud argued that most people behave morally most of the time because of the inhibiting effects of their consciences or the guilt they feel when they do something wrong. (Zimbardo, 1988, p. 87)
Cognitive theorists are concerned with thinking and they suggest that moral development has definable stages that everyone goes through to some degree. Lawrence Kohlberg (1963) presented six stages of moral development which, although criticized by some, is accepted today as a useful model.
According to Kohlberg's original formulation, people can fit into one of the six stages or moral development. Since then, he has theorized that an even higher moral stage (stage 7) exists, although it is rarely found. (Zimbardo, 1988, p. 88)
The following is a summary of Kohlberg's Model of Moral Development:
Stage 1. Punishment and obedience. Rules are obeyed to avoid punishment.
Stage 2. Naive instrumental hedonism. Rules are obeyed to obtain rewards and to have favors returned.
Stage 3. "Good-boy" morality of maintaining good relations and the approval of others. Rules are obeyed to avoid disapproval or dislike by others.
Stage 4. Authority-maintaining morality. Rules are obeyed to avoid censure by legitimate authorities and to avoid guilt.
Stage 5. Morality of contract, of individual rights, and of democratically accepted law. Rules are obeyed for social or community welfare.
Stage 6. Morality of individual principles of consciousness. Rules are obeyed in order to abide by universal ethical principles.
Kohlberg has been criticized by other psychologists including women for various reasons (Kohlberg's study subjects, for example, were males), and Kohlberg himself has reviewed his findings and has acknowledged the importance of some of his critics' arguments. But his six stages still remain as an important psychological model for moral development. One of his critics is Carol Gilligan:
Gilligan argues that there are essentially two methods of moral reasoning. One is based on concepts of justice and the other on caring for others. These methods can be sexually differentiated. The justice perspective is characteristics of male thinking, while caring for others is common to women's moral reasoning. Men focus on rights and think in highly individualistic terms, according to Gilligan. Women, by contrast, see moral issues in terms of human relationships and concerns for the need of both sides in a moral dilemma. However, Gilligan notes, some women make moral judgments from a justice perspective and some men from a caring one. It results from the socialization process. As a consequence of their predispositions, however, men tend to base their judgments on abstract moral principles and women generally on human needs in concrete situations ... Gilligan argues that Kohlberg's stages theory needs to include the female perspective along with the male's. (Craig, 1989, p. 354-355)
Sikula (1994) reports on a study that concludes men and women are equally ethical and gender has no significant impact on ethical behavior.
Virtually all psychologists agree that babies are amoral - neither moral nor immoral. They cannot understand people's responsibilities to each other. Various stages of moral development are entered as we grow. But it is well known that children are egocentric - they see the whole world as wrapped around themselves and are unable to view life from another's perspective. The egocentric character of the child matures in early middle childhood. This allows the child to see another's point of view and to develop friendships.
Moral development according to modern psychology is somewhat indecisive, although Kohlberg's six stages are widely accepted as a general model. Basically, morals are the result of our developing from an initial state of amorality to obtaining a conscience - a sense of right and wrong. How this development occurs is debatable, but it is generally accepted that morals have to do with acquiring a sense of right and wrong. Virtually all psychologists agree also that morality is culture-dependent, and what is right in one culture may be wrong in another culture. Right and wrong are relative, rather than absolute, terms.
According to Jung (1990), a pioneer of transpersonal psychology, good and evil have to do with the shadow which is an inner area of the psyche that compensates for the outward persona. The persona is basically everything that we want to be. It is how we try to show ourselves to the external world. But all of our repressed thoughts, feelings, and actions end up in the shadow (Johnson, 1991). Facing our shadow and integrating the good within us together with the evil is the first step in Jung's individuation process (Jacobi, 1973) and is also necessary for self-actualization (Maslow, 1968).
Ethics and Counseling.
The Need for Ethics in Counseling.
The need for a standardized code of ethics and morals in counseling has been apparent for many years. Forge and Henderson (1990) state that a strong ethical sense is required, for example, in a courtroom when a counselor testifies as an expert witness. Herlihy and Corey (1996) provide case studies helpful in evaluating the 1995 ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice and offer guidelines in the application of these principles.
Erickson (1990) discusses the ethics required for counseling clients with AIDS, and says, "When consequences of action and conflict of obligations are so serious, a framework for making decisions in counseling AIDS clients is essential." (p. 454). Cohen (1990) provides an ethical model to help define counselor's obligations to AIDS clients.
An ethical framework is also needed for sexual contact between counselor and client. Vasquez (1988) states that "Most programs spend little or no time addressing the prohibition against sexual contact with clients, yet it is the most commonly violated of the ethical principles." (p. 238). Hotelling (1988) presents ethical and legal ramifications of sexual contact between a counselor and client. Speaking of the need for ethics, she concludes, "Preventive steps can occur at many levels and take many forms, perhaps the most basic forms being those related to training in ethics." (p. 233).
Code of Ethics in Counseling.
The American Psychological Association (APA) drafted a code of ethics (1981) that they considered to be applicable to psychology students and to all practicing psychologists. Ethical areas addressed include responsibility, competence, moral and legal standards, public statements, confidentiality, welfare of the consumer, professional relationships, assessment techniques, research with human participants, and the care and use of animals. However, most therapeutic counselors consider it unethical to use the medical model advocated by psychology in their counseling practice. According to Knottler and Brown (1985):
"Application of the medical model to therapeutic counseling has been eloquently and passionately denounced as morally unacceptable ... Critics warn that the diagnostic scheme developed from the medical model is not useful for therapeutic practice because its concepts are descriptive rather than normative, exhibit physical symptoms instead of behaviors, rely on known physical causes, use physical treatment interventions, and define the client as `sick' or `diseased.'" (p. 163).
Specific areas of ethical concern for counselors have been addressed by the American Association of Counseling and Development (AACD). The AACD has adopted a newly revised set of ethical standards. According to Allen, Sampson, and Herlihy (1988), the counseling profession has taken a positive step forward into the future by adopting these standards. Twelve important ethical concerns established by the AACD are:
1. Be Professional. Counselors should influence the development of the profession and should recognize the need for continuing education.
2. Accept Responsibility. The acceptance of employment in an institution implies that the counselor agrees with the policies and principles of the institution.
3. Be Qualified and Trained. Counselors must provide only those services and use only those techniques for which they are qualified by training and experience.
4. Respect the Client. Counselors must always have respect for the client.
5. Avoid Harm. Counselors must guard the individual rights and personal dignity of the client and must avoid harming the client in any way.
6. Keep Confidential Records. Counselors must maintain confidentiality in the storage and disposal of records. The counseling relationship and information that results from it must be kept confidential.
7. Avoid Dual Counseling. Counselors must not counsel a client who currently has another counselor in the same area (Herilhy and Corey, 1992).
8. Inform Authorities. When a client's condition indicates that there is a clear and imminent danger to the client or to others, the counselor must take reasonable action to inform responsible authorities.
9. Avoid Revealing Information. Counselors must not reveal counseling material without the express consent of the client.
10. Avoid Unproductive Counseling. Counselors must terminate relationships that are not working toward a successful solution.
11. Avoid Certain Clients. Counselors must not counsel good friends, relatives, supervisors, or anyone with whom the counselor has an existing relationship that is administrative, supervisory, or evaluative.
12. Avoid Sexual Contact. Counselors must avoid sexual intimacy of any kind with a client.
Application of Ethics.
Although necessary as guidelines toward structuring acceptable professional counseling behavior, ethical guidelines are sometimes difficult to apply and are always difficult to enforce. An ethical theory, no matter how well written, must remain a theory until it is applied. Abraham (1987) asks, "How is an ethical theory applied? As complex affairs, ethical theories contain all sorts of issues of definition, interpretation, and operational procedures in their use." (p. 25).
One method currently used to secure enforcement of ethics in counseling is state licensure (Corey, Corey, and Callahan, 1993). Brooks and Gerstein (1990) report that 32 states currently require licensure for counselors. The first licensure law was passed over 15 years ago. Today, professional certification effects more than 25,000 professionals. There are over 60 accredited training programs established to assist licensure of counselors. McDonough (1983) states that counselor licensure is now one of the hallmarks of professionalism.
Although licensure itself helps to ensure professionalism, it too has problems. Probably the main problem facing the profession today is the wide variation in requirements that exist between each state. Bloom, Gerstein, Tarvydas, Conaster, Davis, Kater, Sherrard, and Esposito (1990) emphasize the need for uniformity in counselor licensure and suggest guidelines for a model of licensure legislation. This would assure uniformity, and therefore fairness, throughout the United States. Corey, Corey, and Callahan (1993) feel that licensure promotes professional isolation and "specializations" and tends to inhibit "fostering a collaborative spirit" (p. 183) between the helping professions.
Ethics And Christian Counseling.
Hoffman (1979) addresses the need for morals and states,
"The question of moral values cannot safely be avoided in counseling. Moreover, this ethical dimension cannot rest simply with the disinterested clarification of the client's values - though this is an important element therein - but must eventuate, on occasion, in a direct and honest confrontation with the moral values of the counselor, even with the possibility of a moral rebuke." (p. 88).
Christian counselors are probably in a better position to practice ethical principles than other counselors because they adhere to the ethical standards in the Bible. Donagan (1977) says that Christian moralists believe in a universal code of divine ethics that everyone inherently knows because, as St. Paul says, it is "written in their hearts." (Romans 2:14-15)
Thomas (1955) compares and contrasts the secular view (which he calls by the generic name `moral philosophy') and the Christian view of ethics, and writes,
With respect to the source of authority, Christian ethics and moral philosophy seem at first sight to be in absolute opposition to one another. Christian ethics derives its principles from the revelation recorded in the Bible. Liberal as well as orthodox Christians insist upon the authority of this revelation. In contrast, secular moral philosophers seem to reject every authority but that of reason ... According to our view, the acceptance of the authority of revelation by a Christian not only permits but demands that he use his reason fully in determining its meaning and its implications for his life. (pp. 63-64).
Code of Ethical Principles for Marriage and Family Therapists.
Responsibility to clients.
This principle assures that the counselor respect the rights of every client. The counselor cannot discriminate on the basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin. The counselor must always act to benefit the client, not himself or herself. If the counselor realizes that he or she is no longer helping a client, the sessions should be discontinued and, if necessary, a referral should be made to another therapist. The client should always be warned when using a tape or video recorder.
Support. Corey and Corey (1987) says of ethical counselors that, "They familiarize themselves with referral resources and don't attempt to work with a client they're not trained to work with." (p 44)
The counselor must respect the confidentiality of his or her clients. Confidential information cannot be disclosed unless a waiver is given, there is a legal mandate, or if disclosure will prevent danger to a someone. Counseling records must be kept confidential.
Speaking of group counseling, Corey and Corey (1987) say, "A particularly delicate problem is safeguarding the confidentiality of minors in groups. Parents may inquire about what their child discusses in a group, and it is the responsibility of the group leader to inform them in advance of the importance of confidentiality." (p 57)
Professional competence and integrity.
The counselor must maintain high standards of professional integrity and competency. Termination of membership is possible if integrity is compromised in any way. The counselor must keep up to date with new counseling techniques and new developments in the counseling process. Counselors must not harass or exploit clients in any way including sexually. Counselors must only work within their own sphere of knowledge and expertise.
Kottler and Brown (1985) warn, "A counselor must be aware of the detrimental results that are likely to follow sexually intimate entanglements with clients." (p 273)
Responsibility to students, employees, and supervisors.
The counselor must not exploit the trust or dependency of students, employees, or supervisors. Counselors should not counsel their own students, employees, or supervisors. Sexual intimacy with a student, employee, or supervisor is prohibited.
Responsibility to the profession.
Counselors must respect the rights and responsibilities of other counselors and therapists. Research must always be carried out in a professional and ethical manner. Plagiarism is prohibited. Counselors should contribute to activities that will improve society and should do some work with the poor without financial return.
Counselors should make financial arrangements with clients that are agreeable to the client and should use only accepted financial practices. Counselors should not accept pay for referrals nor charge excessive fees for their practice. Payment arrangements should be made before treatment begins.
Advertisements should be honest and accurately reflect competence, education, and training. Advertisements should not created misleading expectations. AAMFT membership should be used only for clinical or professional activities.
Ethics and the APA.
The APA's code of ethics was revised in 1995. The APA's new Ethical Code of Conduct consists of an introduction, a preamble, six general principles, and a long list of specific ethical standards that all members are expected to follow.
The Ethics Code is intended to provide standards of professional conduct that can be applied by the APA and by other bodies that choose to adopt them ... This code is intended to provide both general principles and the decision rules to cover most situations encountered by psychologists. (Bersoff, 1995, pp. 7-8).
The six general principles include competence, integrity, professional and scientific responsibility, respect for people's rights and dignity, concern for other's welfare, and social responsibility.
The new code expressly warns against sexual conduct between patient and therapist. Baylis (1997) suggests that any sexual conduct whatsoever is unethical and a "profound violation" of the patient. However, dual relationships need not be sexual because the new code warns against any form of dual relationships:
"A dual relationship in psychotherapy occurs when the therapist is in another, significantly different relationship with one of his or her patients. Most commonly, the second role is social, financial, or professional ... the dual relationship erodes and distorts the professional nature of the therapeutic relationship ...[and] creates conflicts of interest." (Pope, 1995, pp. 209-210)
The new APA code of ethics considers dual relationships to be one aspect of multiple relationships which is the more general term. This is discussed in article 1.17 of the APA Code which says that such relationships are unethical "if it appears likely that such a relationship reasonably might impair the psychologists' objectivity or otherwise interfere with the psychologists' effectively performing his or her function as a psychologist, or might harm or exploit the other party" (Bersoff, 1995, p. 11). The best way to be certain that one's judgment will not be impaired, or that a client will not be harmed or exploited, is to avoid such relationships before they begin. This echoes the advice of Herlihy and Corey (1992) who warn counselors against becoming involved in dual relationships.
Ethics is the study and evaluation of human conduct with respect to standards of behavior which can be either individual or social. The basic idea that there is a right and wrong way to do things has existed probably as long as mankind. Ethics were formulated, discussed, and argued in the early Greek period, and have been the subject of refinement and controversy ever since. Because of cultural biases, there is no universal standard of ethics adhered to by everyone. Rather, every religion or social group, and perhaps every individual, has their own sense of what is right and proper behavior. To help structure and define proper professional behavior, both the ACA and APA have developed detailed codes of ethical behavior for all counselors and therapists.
Psychology looks at ethics in much the same way as it does at all other aspects of human behavior. Infants are amoral, having no sense of right and wrong. As they slowly learn right from wrong actions, they develop a conscience, or a general sense of right and wrong. Moral behavior is gained in developmental stages, like other aspects of the human constitution. According to transpersonal psychology, the development and integration of morals and ethics is the first important stage of the individuation process and absolutely necessary for self-actualization.
Abraham, E. (1987). Ethics applied or conduct enlightened? In J. Howie (Ed.). (1987). Ethical Principles and Practice. pp 25-26. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
Allen, V. B., Sampson, J. P. Jr. & Herlihy, B. (1988). Details of the 1988 AACD ethical standards. Journal of Counseling and Development. Nov. pp. 157-158.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Baron, R. (1989). Psychology: The essential science. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Bayles, M. D. (1987). Moral theory and application. In Howie, J. (Ed.). (1987). Ethical principles and practice. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. First published in 1984.
Baylis, F. (1997). Therapist-patient sexual contact: A nonconsensual inherently harmful activity. In Edwards, R. B. (Ed.). (1997). Ethics of psychiatry. Amherst, NY: Prometheus.
Bersoff, D. N. (Ed.). (1995). Ethical conflicts in psychology. Washington, DC: APA.
Bloom, J., Gerstein, L., Tarvydas, V., Conaster, J., Davis, E., Kater, D., Sherrard, P., and Esposito, R. (1990). Model legislation for licensed professional counselors. Journal of Counseling and Development. May-Jun. pp. 511-523.
Brody, B. (1983). Ethics and its applications. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Brooks, D. K. Jr., and Gerstein, L. H. (1990). Counselor credentialing and interprofessional collaboration. Journal of Counseling and Development. May-Jun. pp. 477-484.
Cohen, E. D. (1990). Confidentiality, counseling, and clients who have AIDS: Ethical foundations of a model rule. Journal of Counseling and Development. Jan-Feb. pp. 282-286.
Corey, M. S. and Corey, G. (1987). Groups: Process and Practice. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Corey, G., Corey, M. S. and Callahan, P. (1993). Issues and ethics in the helping professions. 4th Ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. First published in 1979.
Craig, G. J. (1989). Human Development (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Darley, J. M., Glucksberg, S. and Kinchla, R. A. (1991). Psychology (5th ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Donagan, A. (1977). The Theory of Morality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Encarta Encyclopedia. (1996). Microsoft On-line at the Microsoft Network. Downloaded on 8 March 1997.
Erickson, S. H. (1990). Counseling the irresponsible AIDS client: Guidelines for decision making. Journal for Counseling and Development. Mar-Apr. pp. 454-455.
Forge, J., & Henderson, P. (1990). Counselor competency in the courtroom. Journal of Counseling and Development. Mar-Apr. pp. 456-459.
Gatchel, R. and Blanchard, E. (Eds.). (1993). Psychophysiological disorders: Research and clinical applications. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. (1993). CD ROM. Software Toolsworks.
Groves, P. and Rebec, G. (1992). Introduction to biological psychology. Madison, WI: Brown and Beachmark.
Herlihy, B. and Corey, G. (1992). Dual relationships in counseling. Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development.
Herlihy, B. & Corey, G. (Eds.). (1996). ACA ethical standards case book (5th ed). Arlington, VA: American Counseling Association.
Hoffman, J. C. (1979). Ethical confrontation in counseling. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hollin, C. (Ed.). (1995). Contemporary psychology: An introduction. London: Taylor & Francis.
Hotelling, K. (1988). Ethical, legal, and administrative options to address sexual relationships between counselor and client. Journal of Counseling and Development. Nov-Dec. pp. 233-237.
Hunt, M. (1993). The story of psychology. New York: Anchor.
Jacobi, J. (1973). The psychology of C.G. Jung: An introduction with illustrations. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Johnson, R. A. (1991). Owning your own shadow: Understanding the dark side of the psyche. United Kingdom: HarperCollins.
Jung, C.G. (1990). The archetypes of the collective unconscious. Hull, R. F. C. (Trans.). Bollingen Series XX. The Collected Works of C.G. Jung, 9 (1). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. First published in 1959.
Kohlberg, L. (1963). The development of children's orientations toward a moral order. I: Sequence in the development of moral thought. Vita Humana. 6, 11-38.
Knottler, J. A. and Brown, R. J. (1985). Introduction to therapeutic counseling. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co. p.163.
McDonough, J. (1983). Counselor professionalism. Guideposts. 65. p. 2.
Lefton, L. A. (1991). Psychology (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Microsoft Bookshelf. (1995). Redmond: Microsoft. CD ROM.
Piaget, J. (1960). The moral judgment of the child. New York: Free Press.
Pope, K. S. (1995). Dual relationships in psychotherapy. In Bersoff, D. N. (Ed.). (1995). Ethical conflicts in psychology. Washington, DC: APA.
Popenoe, D. (1991) Sociology (8th ed.), Englewood Cliffs, NH: Prentice Hall.
Sikula, A. (1994). Are women more ethical than men? Journal of Business Ethics. 0167-4544. Nov 1994. v13, n11, p. 859 (13).
Silber, J. R. (1995). Obedience to the unenforceable: A crisis of moral decay. (Transcript). In Vital Speeches. Aug 1995. v61, n20, p. 632 (4).
The American Psychological Association. (1981). Ethical principles of psychologists (revised edition). Adopted by the APA on January 24, 1981.
Thomas, G. F. (1955). Christian ethics and moral philosophy. In W. D. Durland & W. H. Bruening (Eds.). Ethical issues: A search for the
contemporary conscience. pp 63-64. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield.
Vasquez, M. J. T. (1988). Counselor-client sexual contact: Implications for ethics training. Journal of Counseling and Development. Dec. pp. 238-241.
Weiten, W. (1986). Psychology applied to modern life: Adjustment in the 80s (2nd ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Zimbardo, P. (1985) Psychology and Life (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Scott, Foresman and Co.