by Gerald Schueler, Ph.D. © 1997
The behavior and predictability of complex dynamic systems depends upon their initial conditions. Such systems are called chaotic systems, and they are unpredictable over time because small changes in initial conditions will result in larger differences in system conditions over time. This paper examines the psyche, as defined by the Swiss psychologist Carl Jung, as a complex system that is highly dependent on initial conditions. Astrological predictions, especially predictions of personality characteristics, can be considered to be accurate to the extent that they are meaningful to the individual and inaccurate to the extent that they lack any personal meaning. Thus astrology has psychological value even though science has overwhelmingly demonstrated its inability to make accurate predictions.
The behaviors of all dynamic systems are dependent upon their initial conditions. In classical mechanics, the initial conditions of systems are usually known. A very simple example will show how important initial conditions can be to a dynamic system. A small ball is dropped onto the edge of a razor blade as shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Ball Balancing on an Edge.
The ball can strike the blade in such a way that it can go off to the left or to the right. The initial condition that will determine whether the ball goes to the left or right is minute. If the ball were initially held centered over the blade, a prediction of which direction the ball will go would be impossible to make with certainty.
Dynamic systems, that are highly dependent on their initial conditions, are the main subjects of investigation in modern chaos theory. According to Kellert (1993), chaos theory is the qualitative study of unstable aperiodic behavior in deterministic, nonlinear, dynamical systems. Aperiodic behavior is observed when there is no variable, describing the state of the system, that undergoes a regular repetition of values. Unstable aperiodic behavior is highly complex: it never repeats and it continues to manifest the effects of any small perturbation. Such behavior is usually dependent on initial conditions so that the system is said to have sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Kellert (1993) points out that "A dynamical system that exhibits sensitive dependence on initial conditions will produce markedly different solutions for two specifications of initial states that are initially very close together" (p. 12). A ball falling on a razor blade is one example of such a dynamic system because a very slight change in the initial conditions of the ball can result in falling to the right or left of the blade.
Modern thermodynamics teaches that systems can be closed, isolated, or open to their environments. Most complex systems (systems with a large number of components) are open (Atkins, 1984). According to Rosen (1991),
The natural evolution of quasi-isolated systems should be analyzed by considering the evolution process as a sequence of states in time. A state is the condition of the system at any time, and this can be either discrete or continuous. At any time, we can consider the system's state as the initial conditions for whatever processes follow.(p. 78).
The initial conditions of a complex system can therefore be found by making observations, at selected times, of the system's state space. Theoretically, this can even be done for the universe at large. Ruelle (1991 ) says,
Newtonian mechanics gives a completely deterministic picture of the world: if we know the state of the universe at some initial time, we should be able to determine its state at any other time. (p. 29)
This ability is called determinism and it holds true for all dynamic systems. However, the initial conditions of many complex systems cannot be accurately determined. When systems exhibit sensitive dependence on initial conditions, they are no longer predictable, and determinism no longer holds. One complex system that is often used as a typical example, is the weather. Ruelle (1991) says,
It is conceivable that the presence of Venus, or any other planet, modifies the evolution of the weather, with consequences that we cannot disregard. The evidence is that whether we have rain or not this afternoon depends upon, among many other things, the gravitational influence of Venus a few weeks ago! (p 23).
This sensitive dependence on initial conditions of our weather is called the Butterfly Effect.
The Butterfly Effect
The state or condition of a complex system over time depends on its initial conditions. This finding of modern chaos theory is known under the quaint name of the Butterfly Effect. The Butterfly Effect suggests that a butterfly, that beats its wings in Peking today, can transform a storm system next month in New York. This is now known to have some validity, specially with weather prediction.
In 1961, Edward Lorenz discovered that his computer gave him a different answer when he started at the beginning of his calculations than when he took a "short-cut" and started near the midpoint. Intuitively it should not have mattered, because the differences were so very small they should have been negligible. But the final result, he discovered, was highly dependent on the starting conditions.
In one computer run, he started with the number .506127. The short-cut run began with the number .506, a rounded-off number. The rounding off made all the difference. The calculations had to do with the weather, and the rounding off error should not have made the difference of a small puff of wind, yet the results of the two calculations were totally different. One of the practical conclusions from his discovery is that long-range weather forecasting is doomed to failure. This is not because we can't measure good enough; but rather, like the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics, there are distinct limits to how far we can predict future events with certainty, even in our everyday macroscopic world.
For every event that occurs, small uncertainties multiply over time, cascading upward into unpredictability (Briggs and Peat, 1989; Cohen and Stewart, 1994; Gleick, 1987).
Classical systems are those that are in equilibrium. Systems in far-from-equilibrium conditions are extremely sensitive to external environmental fluctuations. For this reason, far-from-equilibrium systems can adapt to their environment better and faster than those in equilibrium. In a sense, this is a key to understanding evolution.
Our Chaotic Cosmos
Peterson (1993) concludes,
Uncertainty is the most certain thing about planetary orbits; the solar system doesn't really run like a clock. Sensitive dependence on initial conditions rules, and chaos lurks everywhere. (p. 267)
Virtually all modern scientists now agree that our universe began in a Big Bang. The Big Bang is an explosion of very dense matter which has, over time, resulted in our physical universe which is still expanding today. The Big Bang Cosmological Model is predicted by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (Silk, 1989). Einstein's theory predicts that our universe is in a state of dynamic change--it is a huge, complex dynamic system.
In 1929, Edwin Hubble showed that the universe is expanding outwardly in all directions. It is in a state of dynamic inflation. Hubble's equation is v = Hd, where v is the recessional velocity of a star cluster, d is the distance of the cluster from our Milky Way galaxy, and H is the expansion rate, now known as the Hubble constant (Riordan and Schramm, 1991).
This condition suggested the Big Bang Model as a viable description of the birth and growth of our universe. The 1965 discovery of the microwave background radiation, by Penzias and Wilson, established the Big Bang Model as a clear winner over all contenders. But other experimental models have also substantiated the Big Bang, such as the prediction that the universe should contain especially large amounts of the lightest elements such as hydrogen and helium. A detailed description of this model is given by Silk (1989) who states,
Theoretical supporters of the big bang believed that how the universe appears today - in terms of the number and distribution of the galaxies - had been almost wholly determined by minute features in the earliest instant of the universe. These conditions were believed to have been set when the universe was at the early age of 10-43 second. (p. 59)
This is the Planck time, a natural limit beyond which it is impossible to see the initial conditions of the universe after the Big Bang. Because the universe is currently expanding, we can mentally consider going backward in time and letting the universe condense. When we do this, we find that matter becomes denser and temperature rises. When we take this thought back far enough, we will see density reach infinity at a space-time singularity, and we can go no farther. Using the current estimates of expansion rate, we will find that this space-time singularity occurred about 15 billion years ago (Barrow, 1988).
Scientists have modeled this Big Bang in great detail. However, their models virtually all assume isotropic conditions, and that the beginning explosion was spatially homogeneous. In other words, the initial conditions are assumed to have been linear to a large degree. Shear, rotation, irregular curvature, and other chaotic conditions were ignored. The results of this model give rise to our present concept of an isotropic universe.
Using computer models, scientists have studied many possible initial conditions for our universe. Almost all of them lead to an extremely anisotropic and nonuniform universe rather than the one in which we find ourselves. The initial conditions of our universe therefore belong to a very unique set of parameters (Barrow & Silk, 1983). This fact has given rise to the anthropic principle which Hawking (1988) paraphrases as "We see the universe the way it is because we exit" (p. 124).
Our universe possesses a small level of inhomogeneity, a large amount of isotropy, and a close proximity to the critical density required for a flat universe. In a closed universe, the curvature of space is positive, and the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse back into itself in what Gribbin (1988) calls the Omega Point. In an open universe, the curvature is negative, and the universe would perpetually expand. In a flat universe, the curvature is zero, and expansion also continues. Current scientific evidence is still lacking as to whether our universe is open or closed and scientists are still trying to determine how much matter is in the universe (Pagels, 1982).
The universe may someday stop expanding and begin contracting until it reaches another space-time singularity where it will undergo a new Big Bang or rebirth. It may also share existence with parallel universes (Davies, 1982; Wolf, 1990).
Science has not yet produced a definitive model of our universe. In the sense that the universe may be a vast living system, it is open. In the sense that the universe may expand and contract, evolve and involve, in periodic cycles, it is closed.
There are three major models of our universe that have been proposed, and are under consideration by the scientific community. These are:
(1) The Unchanging Models. These propose a steady-state linearity over the universe as a whole while allowing for nonlinearity in specific regions.
(2) The Cycle/Cyclic Models. These view the universe as an endless series of birth-growth-death cycles, analogous to the human life-cycle.
(3) The Evolving Models. These view the universe as continually evolving from an original state, and will never repeat a state again.
The Big Bang Model describes an isotropic expansion of the universe as a universal effect; every part of the universe expands equally. But the latest cosmological research has shown that the universe is not equally divided. It has holes in it such as those found in a giant sponge or Swiss cheese. These holes are voids where no galaxies are found. In addition, it was found that a large number of galaxies cluster around the edges of these voids.
The movement of galaxies outward, according to Hubble's law, is called the Hubble flow. This flow should prevent voids and connecting clusters, but such is not the case. The Swiss cheese pattern of the observed universe demonstrates the presence of chaos during the Big Bang. For example, clusters have been found to be moving faster and slower than the Hubble flow predicts (Barrow and Silk, 1983).
The expansion of the universe is not totally isotropic. This departure from the Hubble flow is called a streaming motion and it is the result of small random motions of star clusters. In fact, streaming of clusters is now seen to be a common phenomenon (Barrow and Silk, 1983). These clusters are moving toward fixed points - the results of what can be called Great Attractors. For example, our own cluster, called the Local Group, is moving toward a central point in the direction of the constellation Virgo.
The Big Bang Model does not account for streaming (i.e., the effects of chaos) and thus cannot be said to be the last word on our universe. Several new theories have appeared to help account for the limitations of the Big Bang Model, such as cosmic strings, superstrings, hyperspace, and dark matter.
Cosmic strings are thought to be only a few atoms thick, but thousands of megaparsecs long. They are described as having the gravitational pull of a cluster of galaxies wound up into a narrow filament, and then stretched out over trillions of miles in space (Kaku, 1994; Peat, 1988).
The presence of some kind of dark matter (dark in the sense of not being visible) could also account for the problems in the Big Bang Model. In addition, dark matter could assure that the universe is closed. At present, only 15% of the critical density required for a closed system is visible. Our universe can only be closed (and thus cyclic) if 85% of the critical density exists as dark matter, perhaps filling the holes and voids of space. The most likely candidates for dark matter are black holes, brown dwarfs, and elementary particles such as neutrinos (Riordan and Schramm, 1991).
The new Inflationary Universe Model demands that the universe be closed. This model primarily addresses the first seconds after the Big Bang explosion. According to the model, most of the expansion of the universe was done in the first second of the explosion. Slight impurities (caused by chaos) in the unified universe caused imperfections which gave birth to the galaxies and clusters of galaxies that we now observe moving away from us (Silk, 1989).
A new model slowly being developed addresses the possibility of parallel worlds. The Parallel Universe Model is the only one, to date, that combines relativity with quantum mechanics--both of which predict the possibility of parallel universes. According to this model, there is an infinite number of parallel worlds, all acting simultaneously together. In this way, anything that can happen, is happening, somewhere in a parallel world. Every time a decision is reached, a new universe branches off so that a world exists somewhere in time and space for virtually every possibility (Davies, 1982; Kaku, 1994; Wolf, 1990). Science fiction writers have used this idea in their books for many years. Today it is no longer a fiction, but a definite possibility. The equations of both relativity and quantum mechanics allow for parallel universes to exist, and this model is the only one today which combines these two viewpoints.
The Anthropic Principle
The Anthropic Principle is presented in three parts (the WAP, the SAP, and the FAP) by Barrow and Tipler (1988) as follows:
(1) The Weak Anthropic Principle (WAP): The observed values of all physical and cosmological quantities are not equally probable but they take on values restricted by the requirement that there exist sites where carbon-based life can evolve and by the requirement that the Universe be old enough for it to have already done so.
(2) Strong Anthropic Principle (SAP): The Universe must have those properties which allow life to develop within it at some stage in its history. Three possibilities of the SAP:
a. There exists one possible Universe "designed" with the goal of generating and sustaining "observers."
b. Observers are necessary to bring the Universe into being.
c. An ensemble of other different universes is necessary for the existence of our Universe.
(3) Final Anthropic Principle (FAP): Intelligent information-processing must come into existence in the Universe, and, once it comes into existence, it will never die out.
The anthropic principle views humanity as carbon-based life forms who evolved in intelligence on a small planet revolving around a G-type star. These facts color our outlook and pre-determine how we view ourselves and the universe around us.
The WAP is a restatement of a modern scientific principle that the limitations of the observer must be accounted for in any observation. The universe, as we observe it, must be consistent with our human evolution and with our present existence within it. The WAP does not restrict observers to carbon-based entities, but it does restrict our observations as carbon-based entities. Most scientists will agree, in principle, to the WAP. The SAP and FAP go farther than most scientists will allow.
The three possibilities allowed for by the SAP account for the three main ways of looking at the world. The first is the designed view which implies an intelligent creator. This is the religious view, where God created the world for man. The second implies that observers, in a collective sense, are the creators of the universe. The world exists only because we are observing it. The third possibility is implied under the laws of quantum mechanics, and is called the many worlds model of modern quantum physics. The SAP and FAP imply that the human mind is in some way an essential ingredient in the universe.
Boslough (1992) suggests that the anthropic principle has never been accepted by most scientists because it calls for a creator or intelligent creative force at some point in the history of the universe and begs the question of how the universe came to be. He points out, however, that some scientists believe that the initial conditions necessary for the universe, as we see it today, are simply too special to have been accidental.
The universe began as a Big Bang, and thus its initial conditions are fixed in time--the initial conditions of the universe are the conditions at the time of the Big Bang. There are two schools of thought on this: (1) Orderly Singularity (championed by the British mathematician, Roger Penrose), and (2) Chaotic Cosmology (championed by the American cosmologist, Charles Misner). The orderly singularity school says that initial conditions were fairly orderly with just enough irregularity to account for the galaxies. This model requires the initial conditions to have been "just right" at the very beginning.
The chaotic cosmology school says that dissipative processes helped to "smooth out" the initial irregularities so that the universe would arrive at roughly its present condition no matter what its initial conditions were. This model works irrespective of initial conditions, and thus allows for a wide variety of possible initial conditions during the Big Bang.
The chaotic cosmology argument asks us to imagine that we are standing on a cliff with a stone in our hand. We throw the stone over the cliff where it falls down to the beach below. We can easily predict the speed of the stone when it strikes the ground if the distance is sufficiently great. If we throw it easily, so that its initial velocity is small, its downward speed due to gravity will be opposed by air friction until a steady speed is attained. The downward pull of gravity and the upward tug of air resistance will balance out if enough time is allowed. If the distance of the fall is large enough, the terminal velocity can be calculated by Newton's third law of motion irrespective of its initial velocity.
It can be shown mathematically that the frictional resistance of the air causes an exponential decrease in the significance of the initial velocity of the stone. The idea of the chaotic cosmology model is that the universe would also "balance out" in time, so that its initial conditions, like the initial velocity of the stone, would no longer matter (Barrow and Silk, 1983). However, a paper by Collins and Hawking (1973) suggests that this model is in error.
A new model, called the New Inflationary Universe Model has been proposed, and revised several times (Barrow and Tipler, 1988). It demonstrates that an expanding universe is necessary in order to create observers. This model also allows for phases such as solids, liquids, and gases. The concept employed is that if large amounts of matter changed state during the early period following the Big Bang, then drastic changes could have occurred that would result in the universe that we observe today.
One interesting variation of this model is Linde's Chaotic Inflation. It supposes that just after the Big Bang the universe was dominated by chaotic fluctuations of temperature and various quantum properties. The basic idea here is that if the entire universe began out of chaotic randomness, then it is likely that somewhere a region would exist that would contain an exponential expansion rate that would produce observers. In this model, our galaxy would be in such an expanding region while other regions would not be expanding at the same rate.
Although most of these models have flaws, they remain important for their attempt to eliminate boundary conditions, which are unknown and are apt to remain unknown to us. Stephen Hawking (1988) has recently proposed a no-boundary model in which the Big Bang scenario has no boundary conditions at all. He uses some very complex mathematics to transform Lorentzian space-times into Euclidean space-time. By this method, he excludes singularities from the resulting Euclidean region.
Collins & Hawking (1973) defined a set of solutions to Einstein's equations that demonstrate that our universe could have evolved to its present condition if it began with very special initial conditions. For example, had the density of the universe been one part in a thousand billion greater at one second after the Big Bang, the universe would have collapsed after only ten years (Çamel, 1993).
Our universe currently possesses features which have an infinitesimal probability of occurrence. In other words, the likelihood that chaos or chance alone has brought the universe to its present state is very small. However, if we accept the Anthropic Principle, and look at the range of possibilities in which observers are to be created, then these infinitesimal probabilities become finite.
The FAP implies the creation of computers, although the brain itself could be considered a computer. It is based on the idea that if the SAP is true, then humanity and computers must come into existence, and must not die out, or else the purpose for the SAP would seem to make no sense. The FAP is a logical fallout of the SAP.
Initial Conditions and the Ego
Every human being is a complex system, both physically and mentally. Our birth, and early development as a child, will largely determine how we find ourselves as adults. This is because we do not enter life as a "blank slate." We enter life with pre-established desires and traits (Darley, Glucksberg & Kinchla, 1981).
The early part of our lives can effect us in our later life. Psychoanalysis argues that we must remember our early childhood, if we are to find maturity in our adult life. The Swiss psychologist, Carl Jung (1961/1989) notes "the enormous influence which childhood has on the later development of character" (p. 136). Jung (1954/1985) also points out that "most neuroses are misdevelopments that have been built up over many years" (p. 24).
We must come to grips with our childhood. The Butterfly Effect strongly suggests the importance of remembering our past and assimilating all of our childhood experiences in order to see clearly why we behave as we do today.
Jung (1959/1978) taught that the ego rises up from the psyche shortly after birth "from the collision between the somatic factor and the environment, and, once established as a subject, it goes on developing from further collisions with the outer world and the inner" (p. 5). Furthermore, the ego's "stability is relative, because far-reaching changes of personality can sometimes occur" (p. 6). Mental instability is as much the cause of growth as it is of illness or pathological behavior. Jung (1961/1989) recognized three phases of life as: (1) the first few years of life, called the presexual stage; (2) the later years of childhood up to puberty, called the prepubertal stage; and (3) the adult period from puberty on, called the period of maturity. He also taught that the ego develops from the Self (the central archetype of the psyche) within the psyche during the first half of life, and then returns to the Self by assimilating it during the second half of life in what he calls the individuation process (Edinger, 1972/1974).
Jacobi (1942/1973) says that "Unless it is inhibited, obstructed, or distorted by some specific disturbance, [the individuation process] is a process of maturation or unfolding, the psychic parallel to the physical process of growth and aging" (p. 107). How far the Self of any person matures by means of the individuation process during the second half of life largely depends on how well the ego develops during the first half of life. Thus, according to Jung, the state of the psyche of any individual is highly dependent on its initial conditions.
In addition to individual psyches, Jung also addressed collective humanity, for which he divided the psychological history into four main states: primitive, ancient, modern, and contemporary (Segal, 1992).
Jung taught that every person is born unconscious, with consciousness slowly maturing over the lifespan as the ego grows and develops. Humanity develops psychologically in the same way. Primitives are largely unconscious. "The difference for Jung between ancients and primitives is that ancients have a sturdier ego" (Segal, 1992, p. 13). The moderns have achieved the next step; they have developed a fully independent ego. The moderns account for most of the people in the world today. According to Segal (1992),
Invariably, moderns do not merely separate themselves from their unconscious but reject it altogether. They thereby pit themselves--their ego--against their unconscious, Moderns consider themselves wholly rational, unemotional, scientific, and atheistic. (p. 14)
Contemporaries, on the other hand, are conscious of their irrational side, and they try to assimilate it. Jung's contemporaries thus correspond to the second half of life in which the ego tries to recognize, accept, and understand the unconscious Self. They "feel alienated from their roots and are seeking to overcome the alienation" (Segal, 1992, p. 18). Edinger (1972/1974) points out that "In order to break out of the alienated state some contact between ego and Self must be re-established. If this can happen, a whole new world opens up" (p. 57). We may conclude then, that Jung (1954/1991) viewed the process of psychic maturation as a series of stages, each of which depends upon the preceding stage.
Jung would probably have characterized those who oppose the anthropic principle as the moderns, while those in agreement with it would be contemporaries. From a psychological view, the anthropic principle is an attempt to integrate our inner unconscious with our external world.
Ruelle (1991) says that for very complex systems with one-way evolution, it is usually clear that sensitive dependence on initial conditions is present. For such systems (the weather, for example), short range prediction is possible, but long range prediction is usually impossible.
If we consider ourselves to be complex dynamic systems, then human beings are also highly dependent on initial conditions. Therefore, it would follow that our futures are impossible to predict accurately in the long term.
According to astrology, the exact moment of birth determines a person's personality. Although some astrologers debate when this moment is (appearance of the head, severing of the umbilical cord, first breath, first cry, and so on) it is usually interpreted as the moment of a baby's first breath. "The individual's first independent breath is like the clicking of a camera shutter, exposing the "film" of their soul to the imprint of celestial influences" (Lewis, 1994, p. 88).
If we could determine the exact moment of our birth, perhaps astrological prediction would be possible in the short term. Ruelle (1991) asks and then answers his own question: "Does one find significant statistical correlation between horoscopes and reality? The answer is negative and totally discredits astrology (p. 22). Modern science has not yet been able to find statistical significance in astrological charts, and thus discredits astrology altogether. Yet we find that astrological charts are best sellers in most bookstores and horoscopes are widely read in daily newspapers. This begs the question of why so many people find satisfaction in astrology in the face of scientific evidence.
Jung (1966) favored astrology, at least from a psychological view, and wrote:
Astrology would be an example of Synchronicity on a grand scale if only there were enough thoroughly tested findings to support it. But at lest we have at our disposal a number of well-tested and statistically verifiable facts which make the problem of astrology seem worthy of scientific investigation. Its value is obvious enough to the psychologist, since astronomy represents the sum of all the psychological knowledge of antiquity. The fact that it is possible to reconstruct a person's character fairly accurately from his birth data shows the relative validity of astrology ... If there are any astrological diagnoses of character that are in fact correct, this is not due to the influence of the stars but to our own hypothetical time qualities. In other words, whatever is born or done at this particular moment of time has the quality of this moment of time. Here we have the basic formula for the use of the I Ching. (pp. 56-57)
Although Jung (1973b) agreed that astrological prediction is not statistically significant, he did find astrology useful to determine personality characteristics. He also considered it, together with alchemy (Jung, 1953/1980), to be a classical source of information on the collective unconscious:
"The starry vault of heaven is in truth the open book of cosmic projection, in which are reflected the mythologems, i.e., the archetypes. In this vision astrology and alchemy, the two classical functionaries of the psychology of the collective unconscious join hands." (Jung, 1973a, p. 105)
Jung (1973b) accepted the existence of "a meaningful coincidence of planetary aspects and positions with the character or the existing psychic state of the questioner" (p. 111). Furthermore,
Although the psychological interpretation of horoscopes is still a very uncertain matter, there is nevertheless some prospect today of a causal explanation in conformity with natural law ... Astrology is in the process of becoming a science. (p. 112)
Jung (1959) also provided a psychological topography in the form of eight distinct personality types:
My experience has taught me that individuals can quite generally be differentiated, not only by the universal difference of extroversion and introversion, but also according to individual basic psychological functions ... there exist thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition. If one of these functions habitually prevails, a corresponding type results." (p. 187)
Thus people can be said to have predominately one of eight possible personality types. Because of Jung's positive attitude toward astrology, many writers have taken his work farther. Greene (1994), for example, equates the four astrological elements to Jung's four psychological functions as follows: air relates to thinking, water relates to feeling, earth relates to sensation, and fire relates to the intuition.
Complex dynamic systems, whose current state depends upon their initial conditions, are unpredictable over time because very small differences in initial conditions will result in larger and larger differences in system conditions over time. Such complex systems include the weather, the world, the universe, and all living systems including human beings. According to Jungian psychology, our psyche is born, grows, and matures over time in a manner similar to our physical body. It too is a complex system that is highly dependent on initial conditions. Those conditions include, but are not limited to, astrological observations at specific times.
Jung associates the ability of astrology to make accurate predictions, especially predictions of personality characteristics, with his theory of Synchronicity, or meaningful coincidence. Çambel (1993) says that, "From the scientific viewpoint, strict determinism must be ruled out because measurements are affected by the presence of the observer" (p. 7). This scientific fact is the basis of Jung's theory of Synchronicity.
In a psychological sense, astrological predictions are accurate to the extent that they are meaningful to the individual, and are inaccurate to the extent that they lack any personal meaning. Thus astrology, tarot cards, the I-Ching, and other occult predictive devices possess psychological value. This explains why so many people read their daily horoscopes, have their palms read, or get Tarot readings, in the face of the scientific evidence that overwhelmingly demonstrates their inability to make accurate predictions.
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