(1971) developed a psychological typology for the personality.
His two main attitude types are the introvert (i) and the extrovert (e).
He gave the ego four psychic functions; two primary or dominant functions,
thinking (T) and feeling (F), and two secondary or auxiliary functions,
intuition (I) and sensation (S). Jung’s eight ego attitude functions are:
TiI = introvert thinking intuition
TiS = introvert thinking sensation
TeI = extrovert thinking intuition
= extrovert thinking sensation
FiI = introvert feeling intuition
FiS = introvert feeling sensation
FeI = extrovert feeling intuition
FeS = extrovert feeling sensation
The ego usually operates with only two of these functions to give four
“normal” possibilities for energy:
EF1 = TiI + TiS = Ti(I + S)
EF2 = TeI + TeS = Te(I + S)
EF3 = FiI + FiS = Fi(I + S)
EF4 = FeI + FeS = Fe(I + S)
We are usually either an introvert or extrovert, and usually are either
Thinking (cognitive) or Feeling (affective). However, all four possibilities
exist in potential form in every
ego. We can define EFUNCTIONS as the total energy devoted to these
EFUNCTIONS = EEF
= EF1 + EF2 +
EF3 + EF4
If we let willpower, the energy that consciously governs these functions,
be EWILL then
EFUNCTIONS # EWILL
EFUNCTIONS = EWILL - (EINSTINCTS
is the repression factor. Substituting gives a basic equation for the energy of
the psychic functions:
As the ego increases in psychic integrity (psychic maturity and
self-image), more decisions are made using the will than the instincts and EFUNCTIONS
is positive (assertive or initiative). When psychic integrity is small (this is
normal with young children but pathological with adults), decisions tend to be
made based on instincts and EFUNCTIONS is negative (passive).
According to Jung (1981), EINSTINCTS has at least five
components: the sexual instinct,
the drive to activity, the reflective instinct, the self-preservation instinct,
and the creative instinct. This suggests an enormous complexity for this
ordering parameter. The other two ordering parameters, EWILL and N, are almost equally complex.
Figure 29 shows that for any given value of EWILL and various
values of EINSTINCTS, as psychic integrity increases, EFUNCTIONS
always approaches the value of EWILL (In Figure 29, EWILL
is assigned a constant value of 2). As psychic integrity increases, the energy
available to the ego also increases and some of this energy is used to increase
EWILL. Thus EWILL % N'
and the value of EFUNCTIONS dramatically increases by this feedback
Figure 29. Energy of Functions vs Psychic Integrity.
All ego functions normally mature at mid-life. Thinking (Jung’s
superior function) is normally conscious while feeling (Jung’s inferior
function) is normally unconscious. The intuition and sensation usually partake
of both the conscious and unconscious. Ego development, measured by the increase
in psychic integrity, involves balancing these functions until each uses
approximately an equal amount of energy.
Figure 30 shows the energy of the psychic functions in each of the four
ego states (see Figure 14). Willpower approaches zero in the dream and sleep
states, while instinctual energy approaches zero in the sleep and transpersonal
Figure 30. Energy of the Functions in Each Ego State.
According to Kast (1992), the conscious experience of our sense of
identity includes the parameters of vitality, self-realization, and
ego-activity. From this we can define the energy of the self-conscious ego, CS,
is the psychic mass of the ego; the ego’s intensity times the probability that
the ego is being affected by archetypal activity; a measure of vitality.
is the strength of the ego’s self-image; N%W
where W is the worldview as defined in the next section.
is psychic maturity.
N' is psychic integrity; a measure of
EFUNCTIONS is defined above; a measure of ego-activity.
is a measure of EPERSONA when the archetypal activity is caused by
the archetype of adaptation, the inherent human need for social acceptance and
The fact that ' is itself a function of C
suggests the feedback nature of self consciousness, which increases as conscious
awareness itself increases.