According to Prigogine
and Stengers (1984), "the models considered by classical physics seem to us
to occur only in limiting situations such as we can create artificially by
putting matter in a box and then waiting till it reaches equilibrium" (p.
9). Classical physics, then, makes too many assumptions. Matter in its natural
state contains randomness and irreversibility. Chaos theory says that matter is
not the passive substance of the mechanistic world view of our forefathers.
Rather, it is spontaneously active. Deep within this random activity, is the
creation of order.
According to Jung (1990), individuation,
the process of becoming whole, is a series of spontaneous psychic processes. In
his view, life processes are “complicated and difficult .... in this respect,
they may be compared with all other biological processes” (pp. 350-351). He
was well aware that order can come from chaos. This, he claimed, was the purpose
of the mandala:
Experience shows that
individual mandalas are symbols of order,
and that they occur in patients principally during times of psychic
disorientation or re-orientation. As magic circles they bind and subdue the
lawless powers belonging to the world of darkness, and depict or create an order
that transforms the chaos into a cosmos. (Jung, 1978, pp. 32-33)