of phase locking occurs whenever the chaotic actions of the individual
shifts to the ordered actions of a collective system--when individual behavior
shifts to a collective behavior (Briggs and Peat, 1989).
According to Garfinkel (1987),
word entrainment is used to refer to
any situation in which small interactions among the individuals of a system have
the effect of confining the total state of the system to some limited region of
the global state space. In this
most general sense, it is simply motion that is not ergotic - that does not
wander all over the state space. (p.
Phase entrainment is sometimes called phase
locking or synchronization.
Garfinkel (1987) lists the
following examples of phase entrainment:
Populations of crickets entrain each other to chirp coherently.
Populations of fireflies flash together.
Yeast cells display coherence in glycolytic oscillation.
Insects show coherence in their cycles of eclosion (emergence from the
pupal to adult form).
Populations of women living together may show phase-entrainment of their
Populations of secretory cells, such as in the pituitary, pancreas, and
other organs, release their hormones in coherent pulses.
Garfinkel (1987) also discusses the importance of global
In a model of cooperation as
entrainment, global attractors model overall equilibria...The global attractor
model of the emergence of cooperation displays the characteristic features of
the self-organization paradigm. (p. 206)
Thus for two self-organizing or dissipative systems in symbiotic
relationship, the cooperation between them establishes a global attractor which
draws them toward their common goal. This is exactly the relationship that
exists between the ego and the Self where the global attractor is the archetypal
Self and the attraction is Jung’s individuation process. As we will see later,
each ego has but a single trajectory through phase space.
But if we look at all possible ego trajectories (lives) every possible
point in phase space is reached.