of Consciousness. Angle
formed by using the values of consciousness (vertical) and the personal
unconscious UP (horizontal) in a coordinate system for the four
states of the ego.
Jung’s term for the archetype of femininity within the psyche of every
man. Jung equates this with the soul.
Jung’s term for the archetype of masculinity within the psyche of every
woman. Jung equates this with the soul.
The components, structures, or organs of the psyche that are located in
the collective unconscious.
A psychic ordering parameter that is a measure of how well the ego can
assimilate an experience.
A fractal structure with noninteger dimensionality whose shape is shown
in phase space and to which trajectories are attracted. In classical chaos
theory, “an attractor is an invariant set to which all nearby orbits
converge” (Devancy, 1989, p. 201).
An autopoietic sysytem is one that undergoes
such as an animate or living dissipative system. Evolution involves a process of
material cooperation between living systems. Autopoietic structures are the
result of a long series of cooperative exchanges; a holistic unfoldment, not
simply an interaction of separate parts.
Term used in chaos theory for a sensitive decision point of a complex
system. At a bifurcation, a choice is made between two possible outcomes.
Webster's dictionary (1988) defines chaos as "the disorder of formless
matter and infinite space, supposed to have existed before the ordered
universe", and "extreme confusion or disorder." In terms of
systems, chaos is a state space (the
condition of any system at a given time) where a system exhibits disorder,
confusion, uncertainty, or instability.
“The qualitative study of unstable aperiodic behavior in deterministic
nonlinear dynamical systems” (Kellert, 1993, p. 2). Aperiodic behavior is
observed when there is no variable, describing the state of the system, that
undergoes a regular repetition of values. Unstable aperiodic behavior is highly
complex: it never repeats and it
continues to manifest the effects of any small perturbation.
That part of the unconscious below or under the personal unconscious
where contents are shared between all human beings.
The name given by Jung to autonomous or semi-autonomous psychic
structures within the personal unconscious that compete with the ego for psychic
These are systems with a large number of interrelated parts.
Thus the term is somewhat subjective and interpretive.
The dynamics of complex systems whose behavior appears random but
actually follows rigid laws.
A system that takes on and dissipates energy as it interacts with its
environment. The term itself expresses a paradox, because dissipative
suggests falling apart or chaos, while structure
suggests organization and order. Dissipative
systems are those which are able to maintain identity only because they are open
to flows of energy, matter, or information from their environments (Prigogine
& Stengers, 1984).
These are systems in motion. Most dynamic systems, and all living
systems, are open. Our body, for
example, is an open system (Atkins, 1984, p. 179). It also addresses dynamic
systems. There are two main types of dynamic systems: discrete
A complex within the psyche which constitutes the center of a
person’s field of consciousness and which appears to possess a high
degree of continuity and identity. Jungian psychology speaks of an ego complex, which is both a content and a condition of
An ordering parameter of a complex system associated with energy.
Here extensity is defined as the area of consciousness in phase space.
The process of forming and specializing one’s individual nature. It is
the developmental process of the psychological individual or personality
An impulsion towards certain activities. Those psychic processes over
which the ego has no control.
A measure of meaning or what Jung calls value or
Systems that change over time and whose processes cannot be traced
backwards without leaving some sort of evidence, are irreversible systems (Çambel,
1993). Reversible processes are those
which can take place forward or backward over time; mathematically, changing
time t in their equations to -t
will have no effect. Most processes that real-life systems undergo are
irreversible just as most complex systems are irreversible.
This is the name that Jung gives for psychic energy. Just as the physical
body has energy, so does the psyche.
The dynamics of systems with sensitive decision points. As the trajectory
of a system passes through such points, future behavior becomes unpredictable.
Webster’s dictionary defines order as "a fixed or definite plan;
system; law of arrangement." In terms of systems, order is a
state space where a system exhibits clarity, certainty, or stability.
Chaos and order can be considered polar opposites. We can go even farther here
because, according to Çambel (1993), order and chaos, or determinism and
chance, are like two sides of the same coin, and contrary to traditional
thinking, there is no cause-and-effect relationship between the two (p. 21).
That part of the unconscious that is personal to an individual.
The state space of a system, a mathematical abstract space used to
visualize the evolution of a dynamic system (Nicolis & Prigogine, 1989).
Phase space for the ego is defined here as a 2-dimensional chart showing
relationships between consciousness, the personal unconscious, and the
collective unconscious over time.
Jung’s term for the totality of each person’s psychic contents.
The psychic equivalent to physical mass. It is defined here as intensity
times psychic probability.
A term used by Jung to denote the probability of archetypal activity as
opposed to random chance.
The central archetype of the psyche. This is the archetype that directs
the individuation process.
The image that an ego has of itself. This is formed by memory, a sense of
identity, and feelings of self worth or esteem.
A Jungian term for a meaningful coincidence that has a low probability of being
a random or chance event.
Webster's dictionary (1988) defines a system as "a group of things
or parts connected in some way so as to form a whole." A system is also,
"the body, or a number of bodily organs functioning as a unit." Modern
thermodynamics teaches that there are three basic kinds of systems:
isolated, closed, and open (Çambel,
1993, pp. 41-43). Isolated systems are those which are totally independent of
their environment (these exist only in the laboratory).
Closed systems are closed to matter (no matter may pass through the
boundaries of the system) but are open to energy and information. Open systems
are dependent on environment. Matter, energy, and information may pass through
the boundaries of open systems.
All psychic contents or processes that are not conscious.
The view of the world relative to an ego. The ego uses a worldview to
explain and assimilate experience.